Monday, April 30, 2018

Mosaic Software The Twin Spreadsheet 1-2-3 clone

Mosaic Software The Twin Spreadsheet 1-2-3 clone

Here are some articles

From 2012 since removed


Lotus 1-2-3 inspired imitators, the first of which was Mosaic Software's "The Twin", written in the fall of 1985 largely in the C language, followed by VP-Planner, which was backed by Adam Osborne. These were able to not only read 1-2-3 files, but also execute many or most macro programs by incorporating the same command structure. Copyright law had first been understood to only cover the source code of a program. After the success of lawsuits which claimed that the very "look and feel" of a program were covered, Lotus sought to ban any program which had a compatible command and menu structure. Program commands had not been considered to be covered before, but the commands of 1-2-3 were embedded in the words of the menu displayed on the screen. 1-2-3 won its case against Mosaic Software. However when they sued Borland over its Quattro Pro spreadsheet in Lotus v. Borland, the courts ruled that it was not a copyright violation to merely have a compatible command menu or language. In 1995, the First Circuit found that command menus are an uncopyrightable "method of operation" under section 102(b) of the Copyright Act. The 1-2-3 menu structure (example, slash File Erase) was itself an advanced version of single letter menus introduced in VisiCalc.
Schemenaur, P. J. (1986-10-27). "Firm to Debut Clone Version of Lotus 1-2-3 - Program Offers 2.0 Compatibility". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2016-11-29. […] Twin Release 2 keeps the IBM extended character set of Version 1A, rather than Release 2.0's Lotus International Character Set, which […] causes problems with commercial templates designed for Lotus 1-2-3, Release 1A. […]

with apologies to 

Software spotlight: The Twin

 edited July 2015 in News & Announcements
Mosaic Software's "The Twin" is a late 1980s spreadsheet that directly attempted to mimic Lotus 1-2-3's user interface, functionality, and compatiblity.

Thanks to Thinkpadman for uploading disk images of version 1.3!

I also scrounged up an installed file set of 2.4.


Unlike Lotus 1-2-3 release 2.0 that it competed against, The Twin had better graphics, a much lower price, and was not copy protected. It was a little slower than Lotus 1-2-3, but this was less of an issue for budget users.

The Twin had significant market success during the late 80s. However The Twin, along with Paperback VP-Planner and Borland Quattro Pro were the subject of a lawsuit claiming that duplicating the "look and feel", mainly the menus, violated Lotus's copyrights.

The 1990 ruling upheld Lotus's copyright. And in 1991 a judge issued a permanent injunction against Mosaic Software, prohibiting the company form selling its spreadsheet. (InfoWorld Aug 10, 1992)

It is a little unclear precisely what happened to Mosaic Software after that, however sufficed to say they are no longer around.

Mosaic software did have several other products including "Chartman", "Integrated-7", and "Diamond".

Reportedly, Leading Edge bundled "The Twin" with their Model D, but halted bundling after the suite was filed.

Quatro Pro survived Lotus's suite in part because their Lotus-compatible menus were an optional component, which they were able to simply drop.

Lotus 1-2-3 was itself a clone of Visicalc. However, Visicalc 1.x didn't even have menus, Just a command field!

Microsoft Excel 1.x/2.x did not use Lotus style menus, so probably avoided that mess.

The entire "Look and feel" thing was a big deal at the time, with Apple suing others mimicing elements of their Macintosh GUI.

Obviously, later rulings and such held that command menus were "uncopyrightable".

And possibly because they were too busy suing people, Lotus didn't port their product to Microsoft Windows in time, and got buried by Microsoft Excel. :P

Paperback Software International

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Paperback Software International Ltd. was a software company founded in the 1980s by Adam Osborne to manufacture discount software such as word processorsand spreadsheets. The company was found guilty by a United States court of copyright violation for copying the appearance and menu system of Lotus 1-2-3 in its competing spreadsheet program, even though they did use different computer code.[1][2][3][4] The loss of this lawsuit was the main cause for the foundering of the company and paved the way for future copyright law on computer software.[citation needed]
Not only was VP Planner cheaper, it was regarded by some as better.[5] Adam Osborne's US Paperback Software business folded following lengthy litigation with Lotus Software.[6] The litigation began in 1987, when Lotus initially won a copyright claim in 1990 against Paperback Software.[7] When Borland's Quattro Prospreadsheet[8][9] was also sued, after six years of litigation Lotus lost the lawsuit. The courts agreed that it was not a copyright infringement to use the Lotus interface as a subset - but by then, Paperback Software had folded, and Lotus 1-2-3 had itself faced intense competition from Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Excel.

July 14, 1986


Dikran Bezjian, Class of 1979 - Northeastern University - Engineering ...
1979 graduate of Northeastern University - Engineering in Boston, MA
Chartman PC business graphics for IBM PC in compiled BASIC

InfoWorld - Nov 28, 1983 - Page 21  Vol. 5, No. 48 - ‎MagazineMultifunction. designed. for. package. IBM. PC. BY. JOHN. MARKOFF. Senior Editor Mosaic Software has introduced Integrated-6, a "multi-function" software package designed to run on the IBM Personal Computer. According to company president Dikran Bezjian, Integrated-6 is intended to compete with ...

Mosaic's Bezjian: a happy David versus Lotus' Goliath. (Mosaic ... - Trove

This experience prompted Bezjian to form his own company, Graphics Software Inc, to design a business-graphics package that would incorporate many of the popular HP features. Its later Integrated-7 package included a 1-2-3 compatible spreadsheet. Lotus has sued Mosaic over the 'look and feel' of its Twin spreadsheet, ...

1985 summer -rewrite for 1-2-3 compatibility 

InfoWorld - Aug 5, 1985 Vol. 7, No. 31 1-2-3 Knockoffs coming - ‎MagazineIn addition to stressing low price, the 1-2-3 knockoffs will emphasize 1-2-3 file compatibility, site licensing, and freedom from copy protection in a tough fight to gain market share. The first clone to reach the market in mid-August will be Twin from Mosaic Software Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts.Twin, which runs on the ...will sell for $145 VP planner will be in September at $99 

InfoWorld - Apr 7, 1986 - A number of companies are recommending that their microcomputer users accept clones of Lotus' 1-2-3 as an alternative for spreadsheet use. .... Several manufacturers — including Leading Edge Software Products Inc. of Needham, Massachusetts — have agreed to sell Twin, Bezjian said.

InfoWorld - May 12, 1986  ‎Mosaic Cuts 1-2-3 Clone Price to $99 and Integrated -7 to $199   forced because it was not selling well enough at $145 ... Interface Farsight 1-2-3 clone sells for $99.95... Paperback...Software International of Berkeley, California, also sells its 1-2-3 clone, VP-Planner, for $99.95. Bezjian predicted a large increase in Twin sales in the wake of the price cuts. In addition, he said Mosaic is reaping large profits from the decision to give Leading Edge Products Inc. non-exclusive manufacturing rights ...

InfoWorld - May 19, 1986 - Page 55 -Vol. 8, No. 20 - Twin From Mosaic is a Close Clone of 1-2-3, 1A  ‎MagazineMosaic. Is. a. Close. Clone. Of. 1-2-3,1. A. By Rolf Kallenbach Review Board comes closer to duplicating the features and nuances of 1-2-3 than VP Planner or farsight.. uses a lot more memory than versions 1 or 2.  For spreadsheet enthusiasts seeking a low- cost alternative to 1-2-3, Twin is worth considering. None of the 1-2-3 work-alikes perform and behave exactly like the original, but under scrutiny the $99 Twin comes closer to duplicating the features and ...

InfoWorld - Oct 27, 1986  Vol. 8, No. 43 - ‎MagazineBy PJ Schemenaur CAMBRIDGE, MA — Mosaic Software Inc. recently announced what it said is thefirst clone of Lotus 1-2-3, Release 2.0, giving users the choice of compatibility with Version 1 A or Release 2.0 at a lower cost than the Lotus releases. Twin Release 2 will be priced at $149 and be available at November's ...

InfoWorld - Nov 10, 1986 Vol. 8, No. 45 - ‎Magazine1-2-3 Clones Up to now, we've talked about spread- Data READY sheets that were designed from the ground up as individual products. Twin, Farsight, and VP-Planner are somewhat different: Each of these programs was designed to work and look like 1-2-3, although each offers some differences and advantages. TWIN. price conscious uers best to choose vp planner or Twin 

InfoWorld - Jan 26, 1987   Vol. 9, No. 4 - ‎MagazineOther 1 -2-3 users were more supportive of Lotus. Will Stitt ... "The lawsuit won't matter to most 1-2-3users," said Joe Williams, municipal advisory analyst for People's Bank, in Seattle. Software clones could ... Meanwhile, Mosaic president Richard Bezjian said last week his company has established a legal defense fund ...Osborne intent to file countersuit against Lotus

InfoWorld - Jan 25, 1988 - Vol. 10, No. 4 - ‎Magazine Mosaic Sales Up Despite Suit 1-2-3 work-alike challenges Lotus .. finished 1987 with record sales totaling 2.5 m up from 1.5million the year before For Mosaic, which has always been profitable, the greatest threat now comes from Lotus' lawsuit over The Twin, which Bezjian admits is "80 percent a 1-2-3 • ECONOMIC OUTLOOK By Rachel Parker Slower, but still pretty good. That's how financial analysts watching the personal computer industry describe the industry's month for AT&T 3B2 computer leading edge stopped bundling Twin shortly after suite was filed.

InfoWorld - Jul 18, 1988  Vol. 10, No. 29 - ‎MagazineTom Moran Mosaic Ships Unix Version of 1 -2-3 Clone Mosaic Software Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts, has shipped Twin/UX, the first 1-2-3-compatible spreadsheet for the Unix market.Twin/UX will cost $695 for 386 versions of Microport and SCO Xenix, $495 for Microport 286, from $495 to $2,200 for AT&T's 3B2 family ...
InfoWorld - Jan 2, 1989 -  Vol. 11, No. 1 - ‎MagazineLike Microsoft Corp.'s Excel, Twin Legend can also consolidate files, he said. Mosaic's legal challenge claims Lotus has unjustly forced customers to freeze purchasing decisions of non-Lotus products while they wait for 1-2-3, Release 3.0 to be released. "We are suing them for playing games with the market,"Bezjian ...

InfoWorld - Jul 31, 1989 -  Vol. 11, No. 31 - ‎MagazineTwin. Level. III. VERSION 3.0 Twin Level III is one of three spreadsheet products sold by Mosaic. TwinClassic and Twin Advanced are essentially clones of 1-2-3, Release 1 A and 2.01, respectively. TwinLevel III

Mosaic's Bezjian: a happy David versus Lotus' Goliath. (Mosaic Software - Richard Bezjian)
Also Titled
Mosaic's Bezjian: a happy David versus Lotus' Goliath.
Appears In
MIS Week, v10, no.n36, 1989 Sept 11
Mosaic Software Inc Pres and CEO Richard Bezjian says that he is content to compete with Lotus Development Corp but will not let the software giant drive his company out of business. Bezjian graduated from Northeastern University with a degree in electrical engineering and computer science and worked as a design engineer on DEC's PDP-11 computer line. He then moved to Hewlett-Packard, discovering that the company was selling many expensive hardware-software packages to buyers who only wanted the software. This experience prompted Bezjian to form his own company, Graphics Software Inc, to design a business-graphics package that would incorporate many of the popular HP features. Its later Integrated-7 package included a 1-2-3 compatible spreadsheet. Lotus has sued Mosaic over the 'look and feel' of its Twin spreadsheet, a 1-2-3 'clone.

Computerworld - Jul 2, 1990  Vol. 24, No. 27 - ‎Magazine... the aspect that has made [it] so popular. That defendants went to such trouble to copy that element is a testament to its substantiality." Paperback will appeal the decision, Vice-President of Sales and Manufacturing Mike Burdyck said. Mosaic President Richard Dikran Bezjian vowed to continue selling its Twin spreadsheet ...

Friday, April 6, 2018

Kenmore 300 Water Softener Operation Notes

Kenmore 300 Water Softener Operation Notes

Link to pdf manual is here

To fill:
Fill no more than halfway using bag of pellets.

Make sure salt goes into bottom and not into top of the column. Don't hit or disturb the brinewell cover, or get salt into the brinewell.

Hit select until salt level appears

Set the salt level according to the big numbers on the sticker on the big column

Water hardness is measured in grains per gallon (GPG) or milligrams per liter (mg/l, equivalent to parts per million, or ppm). Water up to 1 GPG (or 17.1 mg/l) is considered soft, and water from 60 to 120 GPG is considered moderately hard. A water softener's effectiveness depends on how hard the incoming water is. Water over 100 GPG may not be completely softened.

The average hardness level for Rochester' MN water is 16 GPG.

How water softener works:

Similar water softener